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Table 2 Age, length of hospitalization, time of assessment, educational level, social class, clinical variables in the non-hostile, hostile and violent groups

From: Hostility and violence of acute psychiatric inpatients

  No hostility Hostility Violence Variance analysis Df Bonferroni test; p < .05
Age (years) 42.2 (± 13.8) 41.9 (± 14.4) 36.3 (± 12.3) F = 6.02
P = .002
2341 1 vs 3 = yes
2 vs 3 = yes
1 vs 2 = no
Hospitalization (days) 9.7 (± 12.5) 12.8 (± 13.8) 20.7 (± 17.4) F = 32.99
P = .000
2348 1 vs 3 = yes
2 vs 3 = yes
1 vs 2 = yes
Interval admission/complete assessment (days) 3.0 (± 4.6) 4.0 (± 6.0) 5.8 (± 7.5) F = 9.73
P = .000
1279 3 vs 1 = yes
2 vs 1 = yes
3 vs 2 = no
Education level (years) 10.5 (± 4.0) 10.9 (± 3.8) 10.7 (± 3.4) F = 1.52
P = .220
1370 NS
Social class 14.3 (± 4.2) 14.2 (± 4.4) 13.6 (± 3.7) F = 0.6
P = .546
1353 NS
GAF (current score) 24.6 (± 7.9) 23.3 (± 6.9) 19.8 (± 7.6) F = 12.24
P = .000
1339 1 vs 3 = yes
1 vs 2 = yes
2 vs 3 = yes
GAF (best score in the last year) 49.6 (± 14.5) 47.2 (± 13.7) 41.1 (± 13.3) F = 11.06
P = .000
1296 1 vs 3 = yes
1 vs 2 = yes
2 vs 3 = yes
Age at the beginning of illness (years) 29.4 (± 13.7) 27.0 (± 12.8) 21.9 (± 8.8) F = 6.84
P = .001
933 1 vs 3 = yes
1 vs 2 = yes
2 vs 3 = no
BPRS total 57.0 (± 13.2) 61.4 (± 13.3) 61.5 (± 13.6 = F = 17.49
P = .000
1278 NS
BPRS psychotic cluster 10.2 (± 5.1) 11.6 (± 5.1) 11.2 (± 4.8) F = 11.85
P = .000
1278 2 vs 1 = yes
2 vs 3 = no
3 vs 1 = no
BPRS withdrawal/retardation 7.6 (± 4.4) 6.2 (± 3.9) 7.6 (± 4.3) F = 15.96
P = .000
1278 NS
BPRS hostility/agitation 6.6 (± 3.0) 9.7 (± 3.6) 9.9 (± 4.4) F = 138.93
P = .000
1278 3 vs 1 = yes
2 vs 1 = yes
3 vs 2 = no
BPRS anxiety/depression 9.9 (± 4.5) 8.1 (± 4.1) 7.6 (± 4.0) F = 28.60
P = .000
1278 1 vs 3 = yes
1 vs 2 = yes
2 vs 3 = no
SAPS 33.1 (± 23.6) 41.3 (± 22.1) 42.1 (± 20.4) F = 20.83
P = .000
1278 3 vs 1 = yes
2 vs 1 = yes
3 vs 2 = no
SANS 48.4 (± 24.7) 43.6 (± 23.6) 55.1 (± 21.6) F = 8.99
P = .000
1279 2 vs 3 = yes
2 vs 1 = yes
3 vs 1 = no
MMSE 26.5 (± 3.3) 26.4 (± 2.9) 26.0 (± 4.3) F = 0.59
P = .557
1231 NS
UPDRS total 7.1 (± 6.4) 6.0 (± 5.5) 7.4 (± 8.2) F = 5.19
P = .557
1206 NS
UPDRS rigidity 0.5 (± 0.7) 0.4 (± 0.6) 0.5 (± 0.7) F = 3.77
P = .023
1206 1 vs 2 = yes
1 vs 3 = no
3 vs 2 = no
UPDRS tremor 1.5 (± 1.7) 1.2 (± 1.5) 1.6 (± 1.6) F = 4.43
P = .012
1206 NS
UPDRS akinesia 0.9 (± 1.2) 0.7 (± 1.0) 0.7 (± 1.3) F = 4.25
P = .015
1204 1 vs 2 = yes
1 vs 3 = no
3 vs 2 = no
Barnes akathisia scale 0.5 (± 1.0) 0.4 (± 0.9) 0.5 (± 1.0) F = 1.52
P = .220
1203 NS