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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of included prospective studies on depression and subsequent cancer occurrence

From: A meta-analysis on depression and subsequent cancer risk

First author (ref) Total sample (% women) Setting of cohort Site of cancer Age Range Depression questionnaire Diagnosis Follow-up (years) Number of total cancer patients (% on total)
Hahn (9) 8,932 (100) Breast cancer-free subjects Breast only ns MMPI depession 70 Medical records and Histology 1969–1982 (13) 120 (1.3%)
Kaplan (8) 6,848 (?) Population sample, cancer-free subjects All Lung, Breast Prostate, Colon "adults" HPL Cancer registry 1965–1982 (17) 733 (10.7%)
Zonderman (10) 6,403 (?) Population sample All 25–75 CES-D (cut-off score 16) GWB-D (cut off score 13) Hospitalization records and death certificates 1971–1981 (10) 637 (9.9%)
Linkins (11) 2,264 (?) Population sample, cancer-free subjects All >18 CES-D (depression 16) Cancer registry and death certificates 1975–1987 (12) 169 (7.5%)
Vogt (20) 1,529 (?) Population sample All ≥ 18 DSM-III based questionnaire Death certificates and state of vital records 1970–1985 (15) ?
Knekt (17) 7,018 (55) Population sample, cancer-free subjects All Lung, Breast 30–95 PSE, Cancer registry 1978–1991 (14) 605 (8.6%)
Penninx (19) 4,825 (64.6) Population sample, cancer-free subjects All 11 sites 71–96 CES-D Hospitalization records and death certificates 1988–1992 (7) 402 (8.3%)
Gallo (15) 2,017 (60) Population sample, cancer-free subjects All Lung, Breast, Skin, Colon, Prostate >18 DIS Self reports and death certification 1981–1994 (13) 203 (10.1%)
van den Heuvel (22) 2,342 (?) GP-based All All GP diagnosis ICHPPC-2 criteria GP-registry 1984–1994 (10) 76 (3.2%)
Schuurman (23) 68,366 (51.2%) GP-based cancer-free subjects All Lung, breast, colon, prostate ≥ 20 GP diagnosis ICHPPC-2 criteria GP-registry 1975–2000 (25) 3,464 (5.1%)
Jacobs (16) 1,213 Population sample Breast Mean = 43 DIS Hospitalization (self report) 1980–1995 (15) 58 (1.1%)
Nyklicek (18) 5,191 Population sample, cancer-free subjects Breast 56–62 EDS Cancer registry 1995–2000 (5) 39(3.2%)
Aro(21) 10,892 Population sample, breast cancer-free subjects Breast 48–50 BDI Cancer registry 1992–2001 (6–9) 278(2.6%)
  1. MMPI: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
  2. DIS: Diagnostic Interview Schedule
  3. HPL: Human Population Laboratory-Depression scale
  4. ICHPPC-2: International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care
  5. CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale
  6. EDS: Edinburgh Depression Scale
  7. GWB-D: General Well-being schedule, Cheerfull vs Depressed mood scale
  8. BDI: Beck Depression Inventory
  9. PSE: Present State Examination
  10. ns: not specified