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Table 2 Results from prospective studies on depression and subsequent overall cancer occurrence

From: A meta-analysis on depression and subsequent cancer risk

First author (ref) Number of subjects with depression Number of subjects without depression Total numbers of subjects Crude RR (95% CI) Multivariable Adjusted RR (95% CI) reported in paper Adjustment factors for multivariable RR
  Cancer No cancer Cancer No Cancer     
Kaplan (8) 117 N.a. 612 N.a. 6,848 - 0.97 males 1.27 females Age, sex
Zonderman (10) 110 892 527 4,874 6,403 1.13 (0.93–1.37) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) Age, sex, marital status, smoking, family history of cancer, hypertension, cholesterol level
Linkins (11) 25 343 144 1,752 2,264 0.89 (0.59–1.35) 1.09 (0.69–1.71) Age
Vogt (20) N.a. N.a. N.a. N.a. 1,529 1.08 (0.79–1.49) 1.08 (0.77–1.52) Age, sex, social class, Smoking, duration of health plan membership
Knekt (17) 29 295 486 5,298 7,018 1.07 (0.75–1.52) 0.99 (0.68–1.44) Age, sex
Penninx (19) 16 130 386 4293 4825 1.33 (0.83–2.13) 1.88 (1.13–3.14) Age, sex, race, disability, hospital admissions, alcohol, smoking
Gallo (15) 8 82 141 1,338 1,569 0.93 (0.47–1.84) 1.3 (0.6–2.8) Age, sex, smoking, alcohol
van den Heuvel (22) 9 207 67 2,059 2,342 1.32 (0.67–2.61) n.a.  
Schuurman (23) 95 1,246 3,369 63,656 68,366 1.41 (1.16–1.72) 1.08 (0.88–1.33) Age, sex, socioeconomic status