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Table 3 Results from prospective studies on depression and subsequent breast cancer occurrence

From: A meta-analysis on depression and subsequent cancer risk

First author (ref) Number of subjects with depression Number of subjects without depression Crude RR (95% CI) Multivariable adjusted RR (95% CI) reported in paper Adjustment factors for multivariable RR
  Cancer No cancer Cancer No cancer    
Hahn (9) 15 821 105 7,991 1.38 (0.81–2.37) 1.5 (0.9–2.5) Age, nulliparity, obesity, hysterectomy
Kaplan (8) N.a. N.a. N.a. N.a. - 1.13 (incidence) Age
Knekt (17) 7 203 47 2,976 2.14 (0.98–4.68) 1.96 (0.88–4.33) Age
Penninx (19) 0 575 31 3806 0.11 (0.01–1.73) No depressed cases of malignancy Age, race, disability, hospital admissions, alcohol, smoking
Gallo (15) 3 N.a. 22 N.a. 3.1 (0.9–11.02) 3.8 (1.0–14.3) Age, smoking, alcohol
Schuurman (23) 25 830 703 32,746 1.39 (0.94–2.06) 1.06 (0.71–1.58) Age, socio-economic status
Jacobs (16) 2 9 38 1484 7.28 (2.0–26.52) 17.2 (3.76–77.08) Age, family history of breast cancer, chronic illness at follow-up, income
Nyklicek (18) 3 837 54 4297 0.29 (0.09–0.92) 0.29 (0.09–0.91) Family history breast cancer, menopause, oophorectomy, hypothyroidism
Aro (21)       0.70 (0.07–1.63) Area of residence, age, education, income, children, socioeconomic status, familiy history of breast cancer, smoking, alcohol, physical exercise