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Table 4 Results from prospective studies on depression and subsequent lung cancer occurrence

From: A meta-analysis on depression and subsequent cancer risk

First author (ref) Number of subjects with depression Number of subjects without depression Crude RR (95% CI) Multivariable adjusted RR (95% CI) reported in paper Adjustment factors for multivariable RR
  Cancer No cancer Cancer No cancer    
Kaplan (8) N.a. N.a. N.a. N.a. - 1.33 incidence males 1.09 incidence fem Age, sex
Knekt (17) 4 110 53 2708 1.83 (0.67–4.96) 1.65 (0.60–4.58) Age, sex (only males)
Penninx (19) 2 144 54 4,625 1.19 (0.29–4.82) 2.10 (0.49–8.92) Age, sex, race, disability, hospital admissions, alcohol, smoking
Gallo (15) N.a. N.a. N.a. N.a. 0.7 (0.1–5.1) 1.0 (0.1–7.7) Age, sex, smoking, alcohol
Schuurman (23) 13 1,328 466 66,559 1.39 (0.81–2.41) 1.25 (0.72–2.17) Age. Sex, socio-economic status