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Table 7 Relationship between depression and subsequent cancer: summary of the review results

From: A meta-analysis on depression and subsequent cancer risk

  Number of studies Summary relative risk (95% CI) Heterogeneity (I2)
Overall cancer    
   Crude 8 1.19 (1.06–1.32) <0.01
   Multivariate 7 1.12 (0.99–1.26) <0.01
Studies adjusting for smoking 4 1.20 (0.97–1.49) 0.23
Studies with follow-up > 10 years 6 1.08 (0.96–1.22) <0.01
Breast cancer    
   Crude 7 1.46 (0.80–2.64) 0.37
   Multivariate 8 1.59 (0.74–3.44) 0.37
Studies adjusting for smoking 2 1.72 (0.33–9.01) 0.88
Studies with follow-up > 10 years 5 2.50 (1.06–5.91) 0.74
Lung cancer    
   Crude 4 1.40 (0.90–2.17) <0.01
   Multivariate 4 1.37 (0.88–2.16) <0.01
Studies adjusting for smoking 2 1.67 (0.50–5.38) <0.01
Studies with follow-up > 10 years 3 1.31 (082–2.11) <0.01
Prostate cancer (adjusted) 3 1.60 (0.40–6.50) 0.55