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Table 1 Frequency of mental distress in subgroups of the sample at the start of the TM course and GHQ subclass scores before and after the course and levels of significance for improvement of test scores

From: Effects of Transcendental Meditation on mental health: a before-after study

  Subgroup n (%) GHQ ≥ 22 n (%) Mean GHQ subclass scores (before – after) GHQ-28 score
    Somatisation Anxiety Social Dysfunction Depression  
Total 80 31 (39%) (6.2 – 4.8)
p* < 0.001
(6.6 – 4.7)
p < 0.001
(9.2 – 9.4)
p = 0.979
(3.0 – 2.0)
p = 0.152
(25.1 – 21.3)
p < 0.001
Age Group        
   20 – 29 35 (44%) 13 (37%) (6.1 – 4.9)
p < 0.001
(6.8 – 5.5)
p < 0.001
(8.9 – 8.9)
p = 0.979
(3.9 – 3.0)
p = 0.152
(25.7 – 22.3)
p < 0.001
   30 – 39 25 (31%) 10 (40%) (7.5 – 5.5)
p = 0.019
(7.7 – 4.7)
p = 0.006
(8.5 – 10.1)
p = 0.352
(3.5 – 1.9)
p = 0.106
(27.2 – 22.4)
p = 0.028
   ≥ 40 20 (25%) 8 (40%) (6.0 – 4.6)
p = 0.023
(6.6 – 3.8)
p = 0.036
(10.4 – 9.8)
p = 0.292
(1.8 – 1.5)
p = 0.733
(24.9 – 19.7)
p = 0.022
Gender        
   Male 24 (30%) 7 (29%) (5.6 – 3.8)
p = 0.005
(5.3 – 3.7)
p = 0.029
(8.5 – 9.2)
p = 0.667
(2.4 – 1.5)
p = 0.094
(21.9 – 18.3)
p = 0.01
   Female 56 (70%) 24 (43%) (6.5 – 5.3)
p = 0.018
(7.2 – 5.1)
p < 0.001
(9.5 – 9.6)
p = 0.839
(3.3 – 2.7)
p = 0.517
(26.4 – 22.7)
p = 0.003
Marital Status        
Married 44 (55%) 17 (39%) (5.8 – 4.7)
p = 0.025
(6.1 – 4.1)
p = 0.01
(9.3 – 9.8)
p = 0.793
(2.7 – 2.0)
p = 0.253
(23.8 – 20.6)
p = 0.024
Unmarried 36 (45%) 14 (39%) (6.8 – 5.1)
p = 0.006
(7.3 – 5.5)
p = 0.003
(9.1 – 9.0)
p = 0.742
(3.5 – 2.7)
p = 0.350
(26.6 – 22.3)
p < 0.001
  1. * All p values are for Wilcoxon rank score test