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Table 3 Prevalence of maternal depression by time and association with potential determinants among ALSPAC (1991) and Pelotas (2004) birth cohort studies.

From: Differentials and income-related inequalities in maternal depression during the first two years after childbirth: birth cohort studies from Brazil and the UK

Variable Postnatal depression
(time 1)a
Postnatal depression
(time 2)b
Postnatal depression
(time 3)c
  ALSPAC
%
Pelotas
%
ALSPAC
%
Pelotas
%
ALSPAC
%
Pelotas
%
Ethnic origin       
White 9.6 10.8 8.4 14.3 9.5 14.9
Black/mixed 18.4 13.0 13.7 17.2 18.4 19.1
P value* <0.001 0.362 0.005 0.025 <0.001 0.002
Family income (quintiles)       
1st 15.2 15.5 12.0 22.1 15.6 22.7
2nd 9.9 17.2 8.2 20.0 11.1 19.7
3rd 7.0 8.2 8.3 14.5 8.8 16.1
4th 7.0 10.2 6.4 11.0 5.9 12.7
5th 6.1 6.3 6.0 8.1 6.7 8.9
P value* <0.001 0.003 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Maternal age (y)       
<20 18.6 15.1 13.9 18.4 14.7 17.0
20–34 9.6 11.3 8.3 14.3 9.6 15.8
≥ 35 11.4 6.5 10.7 14.7 10.7 15.6
P value* <0.001 0.092 <0.001 0.024 0.008 0.733
Marital status       
With partner 9.5 10.0 8.3 14.6 9.3 15.6
Single mother 17.2 19.4 13.6 17.9 19.5 18.4
P value* <0.001 0.002 0.004 0.033 <0.001 0.079
Parity       
0 8.6 8.3 6.7 11.9 8.3 12.7
1 10.2 10.6 9.8 12.9 9.9 12.4
≥ 2 12.4 16.9 10.1 20.5 12.5 22.6
P value* <0.001 0.003 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Pre-pregnancy body mass index (kg/m 2 )       
<18.5 14.4 20.0 12.1 19.8 15.3 14.7
18.5 – 24.9 9.4 10.3 8.2 14.9 9.0 15.7
25.0 – 29.9 9.6 7.7 8.2 13.4 10.3 14.6
≥ 30 12.1 15.1 10.4 14.5 10.2 16.6
P value* 0.001 0.050 0.011 0.186 <0.001 0.798
Antenatal risk       
Low 8.0 6.8 7.7 10.0 8.7 10.8
Medium 12.2 10.7 10.4 14.4 11.9 15.0
High 16.1 21.8 11.7 23.7 15.5 25.6
P value* <0.001 <0.001 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Smoking during pregnancy       
No 8.0 7.6 7.1 12.8 8.4 13.5
Yes 15.4 22.6 12.2 22.3 13.4 23.7
P value* <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Multiple birth       
No 10.1 11.6 8.7 15.0 9.8 16.0
Yes 11.6 0 13.3 20.5 11.8 18.0
P value* 0.565 0.279 0.058 0.341 0.481 0.738
Neonatal problems       
No 9.7 11.2 8.6 14.7 9.7 15.7
Yes 13.4 14.5 9.2 17.9 11.0 19.6
P value* 0.002 0.406 0.557 0.126 0.307 0.072
  1. a at 8 weeks and 3 months after delivery for ALSPAC and Pelotas birth cohort, respectively
  2. b at 8 and 12 months after delivery for ALSPAC and Pelotas birth cohort, respectively
  3. c at 21 and 24 months after delivery for ALSPAC and Pelotas birth cohort, respectively
  4. * chi-square